The main reason Europeans sailed to
Many efforts were made to break the monopoly in the spice trade held by traders from
Before long, the Portuguese had moved in, occupying Malacca and the
After a secret Portuguese expedition by Antonio d’Abreu and Francisco Serrao to the Maluku Islands in the early 16th century, the Spanish adventurer Ferdinand Magellan followed in 1522 and Englishman Francis Drake in 1579. The
Under the Treaty of Tordesillas, signed in 1494, which divided the world outside Europe between
This was revised by the Treaty of Saragossa, signed in 1592, under which the
But if the 16th century was the Portuguese era, the first half of the 17th century belonged to the Dutch, with the Dutch East India Company (the Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie or VOC) and colonial government), with some bits of British influence in several places.
In every strategic place, the Dutch built posts and forts to control trading routes and protect themselves. Such fortifications could be the whole city or part of the city center.
Many of these fortifications are replicas of original buildings in
During the Pacific War, Papua and the
The Japanese forces built pillboxes along the coastline as their outer defense line, while using natural and built cages inland to stop the advance of the Allied forces.--Matheos V. Messakh